Sustainable Development and the Humanity-Biosphere Relationship
Negative Growth or Sustainable Development?
"Negative Growth": Rebirth of a Revolutionary Concept
Great Transition: The Promise and Lure of the Times Ahead
Globalization, Post-materialism and Threefolding
Towards a Global Political-Economic Architecture of Environmental Space
What Brazil and What Amazonia Does the World Need?
China: Sustainable Development Strategy Report 2009
China Sustainable Development Strategy Report 2011. Greening the Economic Transformation
Regulating Transnational Companies: 46 Proposals
Expanding and Reinforcing the Objectives of the Kyoto Protocol: Inciting International Stakeholders to Engage in Greenhouse-gas Transparency
Environmental Governance and Managing the Earth
New York summit is last chance to get consensus on climate before 2015 talks
Greenhouse-gas Emissions and Global Mitigation Efforts
The UN Reform and the Alterglobalization Movement
The Global Marshall Plan
Policy Paper on Education: Building the Future through Quality Education
WGI: World Governance Index (2009 Report)
Seven Leverage Points for the Passage from Economy to Œconomy
Could the COP 21 be our next Westphalian Moment?
Final Declaration "Linking Alternatives 2"
What South Africa Does the World Need?
When World-regulation Experts "Play" the Regions ...
The Cosmopolitan State
The Five WGI Indicators
Do Space and Action Have to Be Contradictory? Toward an Inclusive WSF Strategy
Proposal Papers for the Rio+20 Peoples Summit
Universal Declaration of Emerging Human Rights
Education International’s Response to the Global Monitoring Report 2006 on "Literacy for Life"
Biocivilization for the Sustainability of Life and of the Planet - Workshop
New Rules for New Radicals ? *
The Commons and World Governance
Transforming Capitalism: the Triple Crisis
Mobilize and organize to Stop and Prevent Planet Fever!
Capitalism Has Failed: 5 Bold Ways to Build a New World
The Challenge of Environmental Governance
Preparing Rio+20 at the Thematic Social Forum: A Historical Opportunity
Governance of the World Banana Trade
Europe needs a Grand Strategy
Choosing between Two Evils or Rethinking Armed Interventionism
Proposals for a Fair and Democratic Architecture of Power
Retrieving and Valuing Other Ethical Pillars: The Concept of Buen Vivir*
Another Future Is Possible
Dialog of Chinese, European, and South American Civil Societies at Rio+20
The US political economy is failing across a broad Front. – environmental, social, economical, and political. Deep, systemic change is needed to transition to a new economy, one where the acknowledged priority is to sustain human and natural communities. Policies are available to effect this transformation and to temper economic growth and consumerism while simultaneously improving social well-being and quality of life, but a new politics involving a coalescence of progressive communities is needed to realize these policies. Yet, on the key issue of economic growth, differing positions among American liberals and environmentalists loom, a major barrier to progressive fusion. This Perspective proposes a starting point forforging a common platform and agenda around which both liberals and Environmentalists can rally.
While progressives in the U.S. and its congress generally support both liberalism and environmentalism,
separate organizations advocate one of the two causes and typically go their own
separate ways.1 In order to make headway on issues basic to a Great Transition, however, there
must be a fusion of progressive causes; we must forge a common agenda and build a unified
force on the ground. Why is this critical?
Consider a world in which environmentalists continue to lose on big issues such as climate
change. Many observers see current trends leading to catastrophe, with environmental crises
as major ingredients in a devil’s brew that includes such stresses as population pressure and
energy supply problems; global income disparities and economic and political instabilities;
terrorism, failed states, and nuclear proliferation. A world where environmentalists fail is one of
food and water shortages; sea level rise; increasing heat waves, fires, floods, storms, droughts;
deforestation, desertification, and biotic impoverishment; pollution and toxification; energy
shortages; plus unpleasant surprises. The poor and powerless, even the average citizen, are
unlikely to fare well in such a world.
In scenarios of the future, a continuation of “business as usual” can lead to a “fortress world”
response to crisis, where the affluent live in protected enclaves in rich nations and in strongholds
in poor nations.2 In the police state outside the fortress, the majority is mired in poverty
and denied basic freedoms. Military and intelligence experts also have warned that climate
disruption could lead to humanitarian emergencies, refugees, and rampant conflict.3 At a minimum
one can conclude that unfolding trends threaten the liberal program. Historically, times
of great stress, loss and instability lead societies to illiberal responses. Liberals must appreciate
how serious environmental threats are, and that they threaten political and social systems, not
just ecological ones. We all need to recognize that environmental threats are too serious to
leave to environmentalists.
Another line of inquiry also points to the need for the greening of liberalism: what is required
for environmental success? The basic conflict between environmental thinking and the current
liberal agenda centers on economic growth, of which American liberals tend to be strong
advocates.4 Indeed, because of the unquestioning way growth is viewed in American politics,
those fighting current battles in Washington have little choice in the matter.
Still, an increasing number of thinkers are urging another perspective, which reveals a world
where growth has brought us to a perilous environmental state; where growth is proceeding
with wildly wrong market signals and without needed constraints; and where politics has
failed to correct the economy’s obliviousness to environmental needs. An expanding literature
challenges the viability and desirability of endless growth in rich countries, where material
wealth adds little to human well-being, and stresses the resilience of our finite planet. Tim
Jackson writes: “The modern economy is structurally reliant on economic growth….Questioning
growth is deemed to be the act of lunatics, idealists and revolutionaries. But question it
we must. The idea of a non-growing economy may be an anathema to an economist. But the
idea of a continually growing economy is an anathema to an ecologist.”5 Economists talk of
“decoupling” economic growth from material throughputs and environmental impacts, but the
staggering pace and scope required to de-materialize a rapidly growing economy is not in the
offing. Indeed, we have no choice but to question growth.
Among the myriad threats growth imposes on biodiversity and resources, the existential issue
posed by climate disruption is particularly worrying. Many analysts have concluded that
reducing greenhouse gas emissions at required rates is likely impossible in the context of even
moderate economic growth. To reduce U.S. carbon emissions by 80% between now and 2050,
the carbon intensity of production must decline by 7% every year, if the U.S. economy grows
at 3% a year. That entails wringing carbon out of the economy at a phenomenal rate.6 If the
United States were to do the right thing – reduce emissions by 90 percent in 35 years – the
rate of carbon intensity reduction would have to be 9.5 percent. Clearly, a tradeoff between
prioritizing growth and prioritizing climate protection is emerging.
Yet, we can solve this puzzle. A recent model of the Canadian economy shows “it is possible to
develop scenarios over a 30 year time horizon for Canada in which full employment prevails,
poverty is essentially eliminated, people enjoy more leisure, greenhouse gas emissions are
drastically reduced, and the level of government indebtedness declines, all in the context of
low and ultimately no economic growth.” 7
Building the political support for the systemic changes America needs requires, first of all, a
political alliance among progressives, and that fusion should start with a unified agenda. Given
the current split on the growth issue, one must ask: is it possible to successfully craft a common
platform among American environmentalists and liberals? Nothing ventured, nothing
gained, and so let me now offer a first draft of such a platform, concentrating almost exclusively
on domestic, not foreign, affairs.
Today’s political economy is failing in many spheres of national life. The economic crisis of the
Great Recession has stripped tens of millions of middle class Americans of their jobs, homes,
and retirement assets. A social crisis of extreme and growing inequality has been unraveling
America’s social fabric for several decades. Social mobility has declined, the middle class is disappearing,
schools are failing, prison populations are swelling, employment security is a thing
of the past, all while American workers put in more hours than workers in other high income
countries. An environmental crisis, driven by a ruthless drive to grow profits and expand the
economy regardless of the costs, is disrupting Earth’s climate and impoverishing its biota. And
a political crisis has led to governmental paralysis and a democracy that is weak, shallow and
corrupted by the consuming pursuit of money and the influence of powerful lobbies.
Why is today’s system of political economy failing so broadly? Key is the insight that major
features of the system work together to produce a highly destructive reality: an unquestioning
commitment to economic growth at any cost; powerful corporate interests whose overriding
objective is to grow by generating profit; markets that fail to recognize “externalized” social and
environmental costs unless corrected by a government itself beholden to corporate interests;
and rampant consumerism spurred by sophisticated advertising. All combine to deliver an
ever-growing economy insensitive to the needs of people, place and planet.
For the most part, liberal-progressives and environmentalists have worked within the prevailing
system of political economy, but the big environmental and social challenges will not yield to
this problem-solving incrementalism. Having gone down the path of incremental reform for
decades, we progressives have learned that it is not enough. We need to reinvent, not merely
reform, the economy. Because the roots of our problems are systemic, they require transformational
change – the shift to a new, sustaining economy based on new economic thinking and
enacted by a new politics. Sustaining people, communities and nature must become the core goals of economic activity, not hoped for by-products of market success, growth for its own
sake, and modest regulation. That is the paradigm shift we seek.
The reigning policy orientation holds that the path to greater well-being is to expand the
economy. Productivity, profits, the stock market, and consumption must all go up. This growth
imperative trumps all else, though it undermines families, jobs, communities, the environment,
a sense of place and continuity. Economic growth may be the world’s secular religion, but for
much of the world it is a god that is failing – underperforming for billions of the world’s people
and, for those in affluent societies, now creating more problems than it is solving.
It is time for America to move to a post-growth society where working life, the natural environment,
our communities and families, and the public sector are no longer sacrificed for the sake
of GDP growth; where the illusory promises of ever-more growth no longer provide an excuse
for neglecting to deal generously with our country’s compelling social needs; and where true
citizen democracy is no longer held hostage to the growth imperative. The claimed necessity
for growth puts American politics in a straightjacket, giving the real power to those who have
the finance and technology to deliver growth.
Of course, even in a post-growth America, many things do need to grow: jobs and the incomes
of poor and working Americans; availability of good health care efficiently delivered; education,
research and training; security against the risks of illness, job loss, old age and disability; investment
in public infrastructure and environmental protection and amenity; the deployment
of climate-friendly and other green technologies; restoration of both ecosystems and local
communities; non-military government spending at the expense of military; and international
assistance for sustainable, people-centered development for the half of humanity in poverty. In
all these areas public policy needs to ensure that growth occurs.
Jobs and meaningful work top this list because they are paramount. We must insist that
government take responsibility to ensure work for those seeking it. The surest, most costeffective
way to that end is direct government spending, investments and incentives targeted
at creating jobs of high social benefit. Creating new jobs in areas of democratically determined
priority is not only better but also more effective than trying to create jobs by pump priming
aggregate economic growth.
Of concomitant importance for the new economy are government policies to slow GDP
growth, sparing the environment, while improving social and environmental well-being. Such
policies exist: shorter workweeks and longer vacations, with more time for children and families;
greater labor protections, job security and benefits, including generous parental leaves;
guarantees to part-time workers and combining unemployment insurance with part-time
work during recessions; restrictions on advertising; a new design for the twenty-first-century
corporation that embraces rechartering, new ownership patterns, and stakeholder primacy
rather than shareholder primacy; incentives for local and locally-owned production and consumption;
social and environmental provisions in trade agreements; environmental, health and
consumer protection that include full incorporation of environmental and social costs in prices
through, for example, mandated caps or taxes on emissions and extractions; greater economic
and social equality, with progressive taxation of the rich and greater income support for the
poor; spending on neglected public services; and initiatives to address population growth at
home and abroad. Taken together, such policies would slow GDP growth, yet quality of life
would improve. In this policy mix, the importance of work time reduction must be stressed.8
For example, if productivity gains are taken as shorter work weeks, personal incomes and overall
economic growth can stabilize as well-being increases.
Beyond policy change, another path to a sustainable, just future is to support innovative
models. A remarkable phenomenon in the United States today is the proliferation of innovative
models of “local living” economies and for-benefit businesses which prioritize community
and environment over profit and growth. State and federal programs can support community
development and finance corporations, local banks, community land trusts, employee and
consumer ownership, local currencies and time dollars, municipal enterprise, and non-profits
Parallel to these changes, national values must evolve so we can move beyond our runaway
consumerism and hyperventilating lifestyles. The environmental and social costs of American
affluence, extravagance, and wastefulness keep mounting. The good news is that people
sense a great misdirection of life’s energy. We know we’re slighting the things that truly make
life worthwhile. In one survey, 81% say America is too focused on shopping and spending;
88% say American society is too materialistic. Indeed, psychological studies show that materialism
undermines happiness. More income and possessions do not lead to lasting gains in
well-being or satisfaction. What does make us happy? Warm personal relationships, and giving
rather than getting.
Everything said thus far about the transformation of today’s economy underscores the need
for strong and effective government action. Thus, the drive for transformative change leads
to the political arena, where a vital democracy steered by an informed and engaged citizenry
is fundamental. Yet, for Americans, to state the matter this way suggests the enormity of the
challenge. The ascendancy of market fundamentalism, anti-regulation, and anti-government
ideology has been disturbing, but even if these extreme ideas declined, the deeper, longerterm
deficiencies would remain. Just as we need a new economy, we need a new politics to
Building the strength needed for change requires, foremost, political fusion among progressives.
A unified agenda would embrace an interlocking commitment to both social justice and
environmental protection; a challenge to consumerism and commercialism and the lifestyles
they offer; a skepticism of growth-mania and a democratic redefinition of what society should
be striving to grow; a challenge to corporate dominance and a redefinition of the corporation
and its goals; and a commitment to an array of pro-democracy reforms such as campaign
finance and regulation of lobbying. A common agenda would also include an ambitious set of
new national indicators reflecting the true quality of life in America. GDP is a terrible measure
of national well-being and progress. We tend to get what we measure, so we should measure
what we want.
How likely are environmentalists, liberals, and other progressive constituencies to unite around
this proposed common agenda? Everyone might agree that some of it is ahead of its time,
certainly in terms of U.S. politics today. Yet if some of the ideas seem politically impracticable
today, just wait until tomorrow. Soon it will be clear to many more people that business-asusual
is the utopian fantasy, while creating something very new and different is the practical,
pragmatic way forward.
Liberal and environmental thinkers can begin a dialogue focused on the issue of growth and
on the goal of progressive fusion. That approach supports the goals liberals see growth as
supporting, notably job creation, while still accepting the underlying reality, namely that GDP
growth in America today is not delivering on its intended purpose – better human lives – and is, meanwhile, at the root of environmental losses and the emerging climate crisis. Our growth
fetish will not be missed after it is outgrown.
In summary, then, let us imagine the following: a decline in legitimacy as the system fails to
deliver social and environmental well-being, a mounting sense of crisis and loss, a new American
narrative or story, the appearance around the country of new and appropriate models,
and a powerful set of alternate ideas and policy proposals showing a viable path to a better
world. If these factors are joined, prospects for change brighten, advanced by a powerful,
inclusive social movement.
All progressive causes now face the same dark reality in a political economy that cares profoundly
about profits and growth, and about society and the natural world only to the extent
it is required to do so. Thus, citizens must inject values of justice, fairness and sustainability into
the system, and government is the primary vehicle for accomplishing this end. With government
more and more the pawn of corporations, the best hope for change lies in a fusion
of those concerned about environment, social justice, and true democracy into a powerful
progressive force. We are all communities of one shared fate. We will rise or fall together, so we
had better get together.
Great Transition Initiative; "Beyond the Growth Paradigm: Creating a Unified Progressive Politics"