Trade, Money, and Finances
Regulating Transnational Companies: 46 Proposals
On the Road to a Citizens Assembly
Political Oversight of the ICANN: A Briefing for the WSIS Summit
Rethinking and Changing World Governance
Global Civil Society: Shifting Powers in a Shifting World
Territories: Paradigm Shifts That Need to Be Made for the Transition
Declaration of Nyéléni
Kicking the Habit: The World Bank and the IMF Are Still Addicted to Attaching Economic-policy Conditions to Aid
Proposals for a Fair and Sustainable Economy
Setting up an Arbitration Tribunal on Debt: An Alternative Solution?
The IMF, the World Bank, and Respect of Human Rights
Campaign for People’s Goals for Sustainable Development
Persistent corruption in low-income countries requires global action
How to break out the system trap. A model to support conversations for a more strategic activism.
From Westernization to Globalization. A Brief History of Chinese Modernity
The Cosmopolitan State
Alterglobalization, a Long-term Process Leading to Alternatives
Alternative World Water Forum
Proposals for a New World Governance
Contesting Global Governance. Multilateral Economic Institutions and Global Social Movements
A War Hiding Another War
The Armed Forces and World Governance
Building Consensus on Food Safety Programs among Consumer and Public Health Organizations
Oil slicks: An Ocean of Profits
After Copenhagen, Some Light on the Horizon
Henceforth, the Keys to the Future are Responsibility, Solidarity, and Courage
Now is the time to rediscover John Maynard Keynes’s revolutionary ideas for the organization of international trade and adapt them to re-balance finances in the world’s economies of the twenty-first century.
The economist John Maynard Keynes came to the postwar table with an innovative project for the future of world trade, which he called the International Trade Organization (ITO), supported by an international central bank, the International Clearing Union (ICU). The ICU was meant to issue a world currency for trade, the "bancor." Why the ITO and the ICU never materialized, and what would have changed if they had, is a sobering story from which we have a lot to learn.
It tells us that, in a rational world, it would be possible to build a trading system serving the needs of people in both the North and the South. With an ITO and an ICU, we could have had a world order in which no country could run a huge trade deficit (the US deficit stood at $716 billion in 2005) or the huge trade surplus of contemporary China.
Under such a system, crushing the third-world debt and the devastating structural-adjustment policies applied by the World Bank and the IMF would have been unthinkable, although the system would not have abolished capitalism. If we could resurrect Keynes’s concept, another world really might be possible: he figured out how to make it work more than 60 years ago. His plan would have to be dusted off and fine tuned, but its core remains relevant.