Trade, Money, and Finances
Setting up an Arbitration Tribunal on Debt: An Alternative Solution?
Rio+20 and Beyond. No Future without Justice
Raising International Climate Finance
A Bit Rich: Calculating the Real Value to Society of Different Professions
Beyond the Growth Paradigm: Creating a Unified Progressive Politics
A new historical moment?
Education International’s Response to the Global Monitoring Report 2006 on "Literacy for Life"
Political and Institutional Governance
Proposals for a Fair and Sustainable Economy
The IMF, the World Bank, and Respect of Human Rights
Nairobi World Parliamentary Forum Resolution
Campaign for People’s Goals for Sustainable Development
"Negative Growth": Rebirth of a Revolutionary Concept
Proposals for a New World Governance
Oil slicks: An Ocean of Profits
The Commons, the State and Transformative Politics
Alterglobalization, a Long-term Process Leading to Alternatives
FASE’s Commitment to a Sustainable and Democratic Amazonia
For a Democratic Cosmopolitarian Movement
Post-2015: Global Action for an Inclusive and Sustainable Future
People’s Food Sovereignty Statement
Marrakech Process for the Protection and Promotion of All Human Rights of Migrants and Persons in Transnational Mobility
Regulating Transnational Companies: 46 Proposals
Now is the time to rediscover John Maynard Keynes’s revolutionary ideas for the organization of international trade and adapt them to re-balance finances in the world’s economies of the twenty-first century.
The economist John Maynard Keynes came to the postwar table with an innovative project for the future of world trade, which he called the International Trade Organization (ITO), supported by an international central bank, the International Clearing Union (ICU). The ICU was meant to issue a world currency for trade, the "bancor." Why the ITO and the ICU never materialized, and what would have changed if they had, is a sobering story from which we have a lot to learn.
It tells us that, in a rational world, it would be possible to build a trading system serving the needs of people in both the North and the South. With an ITO and an ICU, we could have had a world order in which no country could run a huge trade deficit (the US deficit stood at $716 billion in 2005) or the huge trade surplus of contemporary China.
Under such a system, crushing the third-world debt and the devastating structural-adjustment policies applied by the World Bank and the IMF would have been unthinkable, although the system would not have abolished capitalism. If we could resurrect Keynes’s concept, another world really might be possible: he figured out how to make it work more than 60 years ago. His plan would have to be dusted off and fine tuned, but its core remains relevant.