Trade, Money, and Finances
On the Road to a Citizens Assembly
People-centered Global Governance: Making It Happen!
Rediscovering Nelson Mandela for the Twenty-first Century
Governance for Sustainability
A Bit Rich: Calculating the Real Value to Society of Different Professions
The Global Marshall Plan
Education International’s Response to the Global Monitoring Report 2006 on "Literacy for Life"
“Guadalajara Declaration on the future of the city”. A Proposal
Nairobi World Parliamentary Forum Resolution
The IMF, the World Bank, and Respect of Human Rights
Campaign for People’s Goals for Sustainable Development
Setting up an Arbitration Tribunal on Debt: An Alternative Solution?
A Global Pension Plan
Persistent corruption in low-income countries requires global action
The Commons and World Governance
Alternative World Water Forum
The Cosmopolitan State
The Commons, the State and Transformative Politics
Raising International Climate Finance
The One Party Planet
For a Democratic Cosmopolitarian Movement
The Challenge of Environmental Governance
Proposals for a New World Governance
China Sustainable Development Strategy Report 2011. Greening the Economic Transformation
Alterglobalization, a Long-term Process Leading to Alternatives
World Governance of Ressentiment*
Now is the time to rediscover John Maynard Keynes’s revolutionary ideas for the organization of international trade and adapt them to re-balance finances in the world’s economies of the twenty-first century.
The economist John Maynard Keynes came to the postwar table with an innovative project for the future of world trade, which he called the International Trade Organization (ITO), supported by an international central bank, the International Clearing Union (ICU). The ICU was meant to issue a world currency for trade, the "bancor." Why the ITO and the ICU never materialized, and what would have changed if they had, is a sobering story from which we have a lot to learn.
It tells us that, in a rational world, it would be possible to build a trading system serving the needs of people in both the North and the South. With an ITO and an ICU, we could have had a world order in which no country could run a huge trade deficit (the US deficit stood at $716 billion in 2005) or the huge trade surplus of contemporary China.
Under such a system, crushing the third-world debt and the devastating structural-adjustment policies applied by the World Bank and the IMF would have been unthinkable, although the system would not have abolished capitalism. If we could resurrect Keynes’s concept, another world really might be possible: he figured out how to make it work more than 60 years ago. His plan would have to be dusted off and fine tuned, but its core remains relevant.